Olaf Rötzschke obtained his PhD in 1993 at the University of Tübingen, Germany, where he studied biochemistry. He started his immunology carrier at the Max-Planck Institute of Biology in the group of Hans-Georg Rammensee, where he isolated the first natural T cell antigen and resolved the primary structure of MHC ligands. In 1993 he joined the group of Jack Strominger at Harvard University and in 2000 he moved to the Max-Delbrueck-Center in Berlin. He joined SIgN as Principal Investigator in July 2008 and in 2011 became Adjunct Associate Professor at the ‘Department of Microbiology’, National University of Singapore (NUS) and Adjunct Professor at the ‘Division of Molecular and Cell Biology’, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore.

Adjunct Positions

  • Adjunct Assistant Professor, NUS, Singapore
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor, NTU, Singapore

Allergy and Immune-regulation

Central to the research is the functional and genetic characterization of allergy- and immune-related pathways in humans. Because of the variations in the genetic composition and environmental adaption of the individuals, the experiments are carried with cohorts. In contrast to conventional cohort studies each individual had been characterized in depth on the genomic, transcriptomic and phenotypic/functional level by a variety of methods. The resulting hyper-annotated database consists of more than 3000 data entries per individual, which together with complete mRNA, eQTL and full-genome SNP data allows for unbiased pathway- and disease-analysis by association/correlation studies. Besides being used for the systems biology characterization the database also represents a valuable resource to select individuals for further studies based on specific genetic or phenotypic/functional markers.

The systematic data analysis combined with the experimental data obtained after the targeted recall of individuals can be applied on the various fields of immunology. In tropical-urban Singapore however, it proved to be particularly fruitful for the study of allergic reactions. Due to an apparent saturation of the environment with house dust mite (HDM) allergens, virtually each citizen is exposed, resulting in a natural (mono-) sensitization of more than 70% of the population. This simple yet strongly penetrating local allergen-environment thus facilitates the identification of allergy-associated genes and mechanisms, which in moderate regions with seasonal allergens remain elusive. A specific focal point of the research by the group is therefore the search for biomarkers of allergies (genetic and phenotypic) and the characterization of mechanisms related to the tolerization and desensitization of allergens.

Additional translational studies are carried out with ‘untouched’ human Treg cells, isolated by a protocol developed by the group from the plasmaphereses fraction of blood donors. In cooperation with the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) and the Health Science Authority (HSA) of Singapore the suppressive capacity of these cells will be determined in a phase I clinical trial to treat Graft-vs.-Host-Disease (GvHD) in leukemia patients.

Structure of the database of the current SIgN/NUHS cohort. The cohort consists of 2 x 300 individuals recruited in January and August 2011. Data-collection and -analysis was carried by the various SIgN groups (indicated by initials of the PI), utilizing the ‘Immunomonitoring-‘, ‘Flow cytometry-‘, ‘Functional Genomics-‘ and ‘Bioinformatics’-platforms established at SIgN. They are coordinated by Profs. Wang De Yun (WDY), NUHS and O. Rötzschke (OR), SIgN.

 SIgN Fellow  Postdocs (Ph.D) Research Officers PhD Students
  • Wendy LEE
  • Kia Joo PUAN
  • Xue Ying CHAN
  • Ser Mei KOH

  • Jolene TAN


Karlsson Linnér R, Biroli P, Kong E, Meddens SFW, Wedow R, Fontana MA, Lebreton M, Tino SP, Abdellaoui A, Hammerschlag AR, Nivard MG, Okbay A, Rietveld CA, Timshel PN, Trzaskowski M, Vlaming R, Zünd CL, Bao Y, Buzdugan L, Caplin AH, Chen CY, Eibich P, Fontanillas P, Gonzalez JR, Joshi PK, Karhunen V, Kleinman A, Levin RZ, Lill CM, Meddens GA, Muntané G, Sanchez-Roige S, Rooij FJV, Taskesen E, Wu Y, Zhang F, 23and Me Research Team, eQTLgen Consortium, International Cannabis Consortium, Social Science Genetic Association Consortium, Auton A, Boardman JD, Clark DW, Conlin A, Dolan CC, Fischbacher U, Groenen PJF, Harris KM, Hasler G, Hofman A, Ikram MA, Jain S, Karlsson R, Kessler RC, Kooyman M, MacKillop J, Männikkö M, Morcillo-Suarez C, McQueen MB, Schmidt KM, Smart MC, Sutter M, Thurik AR, Uitterlinden AG, White J, Wit H, Yang J, Bertram L, Boomsma DI, Esko T, Fehr E, Hinds DA, Johannesson M, Kumari M, Laibson D, Magnusson PKE, Meyer MN, Navarro A, Palmer AA, Pers TH, Posthuma D, Schunk D, Stein MB, Svento R, Tiemeier H, Timmers PRHJ, Turley P, Ursano RJ, Wagner GG, Wilson JF, Gratten J, Lee JJ, Cesarini D, Benjamin DJ, Koellinger PD, Beauchamp JP. Genome-wide association analyses of risk tolerance and risky behaviors in over 1 million individuals identify hundreds of loci and shared genetic influences. Nat Genet. 2019 Feb;51(2):245-257.

Timmers PR, Mounier N, Lall K, Fischer K, Ning Z, Feng X, Bretherick AD, Clark DW; eQTLGen Consortium, Agbessi M, Ahsan H, Alves I, Andiappan A, Awadalla P, Battle A, Bonder MJ, Boomsma D, Christiansen M, Claringbould A, Deelen P, van Dongen J, Esko T, Favé M, Franke L, Frayling T, Gharib SA, Gibson G, Hemani G, Jansen R, Kalnapenkis A, Kasela S, Kettunen J, Kim Y, Kirsten H, Kovacs P, Krohn K, Kronberg-Guzman J, Kukushkina V, Kutalik Z, Kähönen M, Lee B, Lehtimäki T, Loeffler M, Marigorta U, Metspalu A, van Meurs J, Milani L, Müller-Nurasyid M, Nauck M, Nivard M, Penninx B, Perola M, Pervjakova N, Pierce B, Powell J, Prokisch H, Psaty BM, Raitakari O, Ring S, Ripatti S, Rotzschke O, Ruëger S, Saha A, Scholz M, Schramm K, Seppälä I, Stumvoll M, Sullivan P, Teumer A, Thiery J, Tong L, Tönjes A, Verlouw J, Visscher PM, Võsa U, Völker U, Yaghootkar H, Yang J, Zeng B, Zhang F, Shen X, Esko T, Kutalik Z, Wilson JF, Joshi PK. Genomics of 1 million parent lifespans implicates novel pathways and common diseases and distinguishes survival chances. Elife. 2019 Jan 15;8.


Luukkainen A, Puan KJ, Yusof N, Lee B, Tan KS, Liu J, Yan Y, Toppila-Salmi S, Renkonen R, Chow VT, Rotzschke O, Wang Y. A Co-culture Model of PBMC and Stem Cell Derived Human Nasal Epithelium Reveals Rapid Activation of NK and Innate T Cells Upon Influenza A Virus Infection of the Nasal Epithelium. Front Immunol. 2018 Nov 8;9:2514.

Lu Y, Monaco G, Camous X, Andiappan AK, Rotzschke O, Ng TP, Larbi A. Biomarker Signatures Predicting 10-Year All-Cause and Disease-Specific Mortality. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Xue A, Wu Y, Zhu Z, Zhang F, Kemper KE, Zheng Z, Yengo L, Lloyd-Jones LR, Sidorenko J, Wu Y, eQTLGen Consortium, McRae AF, Visscher PM, Zeng J, Yang J. Genome-wide association analyses identify 143 risk variants and putative regulatory mechanisms for type 2 diabetes. Nat Commun. 2018 Jul 27;9(1):2941.

Qi T, Wu Y, Zeng J, Zhang F1, Xue A, Jiang L, Zhu Z, Kemper K, Yengo L, Zheng Z, eQTLGen Consortium, Marioni RE, Montgomery GW, Deary IJ, Wray NR, Visscher PM, McRae AF, Yang J. Identifying gene targets for brain-related traits using transcriptomic and methylomic data from blood. Nat Commun. 2018 Jun 11;9(1):2282.


Salcido-Ochoa F, Hue SS, Haase D, Choo JCJ, Yusof N, Li RL, Allen JC Jr, Iqbal J, Loh AHL, Rotzschke O. Analysis of T Cell Subsets in Adult Primary/Idiopathic Minimal Change Disease: A Pilot Study. Int J Nephrol. 2017;2017:3095425.

Obeidat M, Nie Y, Chen V, Shannon CP, Andiappan AK, Lee B, Rotzschke O, Castaldi PJ, Hersh CP, Fishbane N, Ng RT, McManus B, Miller BE, Rennard S, Paré PD, Sin DD. Network-based analysis reveals novel gene signatures in peripheral blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Res. 2017 Apr 24;18(1):72.

Kumar D, Puan KJ, Andiappan AK, Lee B, Westerlaken GH, Haase D, Melchiotti R, Li Z, Yusof N, Lum J, Koh G, Foo S, Yeong J, Alves AC, Pekkanen J, Sun LD, Irwanto A, Fairfax BP, Naranbhai V, Common JE, Tang M, Chuang CK, Jarvelin MR, Knight JC, Zhang X, Chew FT, Prabhakar S, Jianjun L, Wang Y, Zolezzi F, Poidinger M, Lane EB, Meyaard L, Rötzschke O. A functional SNP associated with atopic dermatitis controls cell type-specific methylation of the VSTM1 gene locus. Genome Med. 2017 Feb 20;9(1):18.

Teo TH, Chan YH, Lee WW, Lum FM, Amrun SN, Her Z, Rajarethinam R, Merits A, Rötzschke O, Rénia L, Ng LF. Fingolimod treatment abrogates chikungunya virus-induced arthralgia. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Feb 1;9(375).


Hadadi E, Zhang B, Baidžajevas K, Yusof N, Puan KJ, Ong SM, Yeap WH, Rotzschke O, Kiss-Toth E, Wilson H, Wong SC. Differential IL-1β secretion by monocyte subsets is regulated by Hsp27 through modulating mRNA stability. Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 15;6:39035.

Puentes F, Dickhaut K, Hofstätter M, Pfeil J, Lauer U, Hamann A, Hoffmann U, Falk K, Rötzschke O. Immune Modulation and Prevention of Autoimmune Disease by Repeated Sequences from Parasites Linked to Self Antigens. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2016 Dec;11(4):749-762.

Lee WW, Teo TH, Lum FM, Andiappan AK, Amrun SN, Rénia L, Rötzschke O, Ng LF. Virus infection drives IL-2 antibody complexes into pro-inflammatory agonists in mice. Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 25;6:37603.

Lu Y, Andiappan AK, Lee B, Ho R, Lim TK, Kuan WS, Goh DY, Mahadevan M, Sim TB, Wang Y, Van Bever HP, Rotzschke O, Larbi A, Ng TP. Neuropeptide Y associated with asthma in young adults. Neuropeptides. 2016 Oct;59:117-121.

Sun Y, Irwanto A, Toyo-Oka L, Hong M, Liu H, Andiappan AK, Choi H, Hitomi Y, Yu G, Yu Y, Bao F, Wang C, Fu X, Yue Z, Wang H, Zhang H, Kawashima M, Kojima K, Nagasaki M, Nakamura M, Yang SK, Ye BD, Denise Y, Rotzschke O, Song K, Tokunaga K, Zhang F, Liu J. Fine-mapping analysis revealed complex pleiotropic effect and tissue-specific regulatory mechanism of TNFSF15 in primary biliary cholangitis, Crohn's disease and leprosy. Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 10;6:31429.

Tan CT, Wistuba-Hamprecht K, Xu W, Nyunt MS, Vasudev A, Lee BT, Pawelec G, Puan KJ, Rotzschke O, Ng TP, Larbi A. Vδ2+ and α/ß T cells show divergent trajectories during human aging. Oncotarget. 2016 Jul 19;7(29):44906-44918.

Penny HL, Sieow JL, Adriani G, Yeap WH, See Chi Ee P, San Luis B, Lee B, Lee T, Mak SY, Ho YS, Lam KP, Ong CK, Huang RY, Ginhoux F, Rotzschke O, Kamm RD, Wong SC. Warburg metabolism in tumor-conditioned macrophages promotes metastasis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Oncoimmunology. 2016 Jun 21;5(8):e1191731.

Puan KJ, Andiappan AK, Lee B, Kumar D, Lai TS, Yeo G, Bercin D, Starke M, Haase D, Lum J, Chew FT, Connolly J, Wong SC, Zolezzi F, Poidinger M, Wang Y, Rötzschke O. Systematic characterization of basophil anergy. Allergy. 2017 Mar;72(3):373-384.

Andiappan AK, Sio YY, Lee B, Suri BK, Matta SA, Lum J, Foo S, Koh G, Liu J, Zolezzi F, Poidinger M, Wang Y, Rotzschke O, Chew FT. Functional variants of 17q12-21 are associated with allergic asthma but not allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Mar;137(3):758-766.e3. 


Andiappan AK, Melchiotti R, Poh TY, Nah M, Puan KJ, Vigano E, Haase D, Yusof N, San Luis B, Lum J, Kumar D, Foo S, Zhuang L, Vasudev A, Irwanto A, Lee B, Nardin A, Liu H, Zhang F, Connolly J, Liu J, Mortellaro A, Wang de Y, Poidinger M, Larbi A, Zolezzi F, Rotzschke O. Genome-wide analysis of the genetic regulation of gene expression in human neutrophils. Nat Commun. 2015 Aug 10;6:7971. 

Haase D, Puan KJ, Starke M, Lai TS, Soh MY, Karunanithi I, San Luis B, Poh TY, Yusof N, Yeap CH, Phang CY, Chye WS, Chan M, Koh MB, Goh YT, Bertin-Maghit S, Nardin A, Ho LP, Rotzschke O. Large-scale Isolation of Highly Pure "Untouched" Regulatory T Cells in a GMP Environment for Adoptive Cell Therapy. J Immunother. 2015 Jul-Aug;38(6):250-258 

Li M, Foo JN, Wang JQ, Low HQ, Tang XQ, Toh KY, Yin PR, Khor CC, Goh YF, Irwan ID, Xu RC, Andiappan AK, Bei JX, Rotzschke O, Chen MH, Cheng CY, Sun LD, Jiang GR, Wong TY, Lin HL, Aung T, Liao YH, Saw SM, Ye K, Ebstein RP, Chen QK, Shi W, Chew SH, Chen J, Zhang FR, Li SP, Xu G, Shyong Tai E, Wang L, Chen N, Zhang XJ, Zeng YX, Zhang H, Liu ZH, Yu XQ, Liu JJ. Identification of new susceptibility loci for IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese. Nat Commun. 2015 Jun 1;6:7270. 

Samsonraj RM, Rai B, Sathiyanathan P, Puan KJ, Rötzschke O, Hui JH, Raghunath M, Stanton LW, Nurcombe V, Cool SM. Establishing criteria for human mesenchymal stem cell potency. Stem Cells. 2015 Jun;33(6):1878-91.

Jin P, Andiappan AK, Quek JM, Lee B, Au B, Sio YY, Irwanto A, Schurmann C, Grabe HJ, Suri BK, Matta SA, Westra HJ, Franke L, Esko T, Sun L, Zhang X, Liu H, Zhang F, Larbi A, Xu X, Poidinger M, Liu J, Chew FT, Rotzschke O, Shi L, Wang Y. A functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene variant increases the risk of moderate-to-severe allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jun;135(6):1486-1493.e8.Lee WW, Teo TH, Her Z, Lum FM, Kam YW, Haase D, Rénia L, Rötzschke O, Ng LF. Expanding regulatory T cells alleviates chikungunya virus-induced pathology in mice. J Virol. 2015 May 20. [Epub ahead of print] 

Westra HJ, Arends D, Esko T, Peters MJ, Schurmann C, Schramm K, Kettunen J, Yaghootkar H, Fairfax BP, Andiappan AK, Li Y, Fu J, Karjalainen J, Platteel M, Visschedijk M, Weersma RK, Kasela S, Milani L, Tserel L, Peterson P, Reinmaa E, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, Rivadeneira F, Homuth G, Petersmann A, Lorbeer R, Prokisch H, Meitinger T, Herder C, Roden M, Grallert H, Ripatti S, Perola M, Wood AR, Melzer D, Ferrucci L, Singleton AB, Hernandez DG, Knight JC, Melchiotti R, Lee B, Poidinger M, Zolezzi F, Larbi A, Wang Y, van den Berg LH, Veldink JH, Rotzschke O, Makino S, Salomaa V, Strauch K, Völker U, van Meurs JB, Metspalu A, Wijmenga C, Jansen RC, Franke L. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells. PLoS Genet. 2015 May 8;11(5):e1005223. 

Liu H, Irwanto A, Fu X, Yu G, Yu Y, Sun Y, Wang C, Wang Z, Okada Y, Low H, Li Y, Liany H, Chen M, Bao F, Li J, You J, Zhang Q, Liu J, Chu T, Andiappan AK, Wang N, Niu G, Liu D, Yu X, Zhang L, Tian H, Zhou G, Rotzschke O, Chen S, Zhang X, Liu J, Zhang F. Discovery of six new susceptibility loci and analysis of pleiotropic effects in leprosy. Nat Genet. 2015 Mar;47(3):267-71.

Santosa A, Andiappan AK, Rotzschke O, Wong HC, Chang A, Bigliardi-Qi M, Wang DY, Bigliardi PL. Evaluation of the applicability of the Immuno-solid-phase allergen chip (ISAC) assay in atopic patients in Singapore. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015 Feb 27;5:9. 

Andiappan AK, Narayanan S, Myers RA, Lee B, Nieuwenhuis MA, Nardin A, Park CS5, Shin HD, Kim JH, Westra HJ, Franke L7, Esko T, Metspalu A, Teo YY, Saw SM, Chuen KC, Jianjun L, Koppelman GH, Postma DS, Poidinger M, Connolly JE, Wang DY, Rotzschke O, Curotto de Lafaille MA, Chew FT. Genetic variants of inducible costimulator are associated with allergic asthma susceptibility. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Feb;135(2):556-558.e13.

Afridi S, Shaheen F, Roetzschke O, Shah ZA, Abbas SC, Siraj R, Makhmoor T. A cyclic peptide accelerates the loading of peptide antigens in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Jan 16;456(3):774-9.


Vasudev A, Tan Tze Ying C, Ayyadhury S, Joo Puan K, Kumar Andiappan A, Shwe Zin Nyunt M, Binte Shadan N, Mustafa S, Low I, Rotzschke O, Fulop T, Pin Ng T, Larbi A. γ/δ T cell subsets in human aging using the classical α/β T cell model. J Leukoc Biol. 2014 Oct;96(4):647-55.

Melchiotti R, Puan KJ, Andiappan AK, Poh TY, Starke M, Zhuang L, Petsch K, Lai TS, Chew FT, Larbi A, Wang DY, Poidinger M, Rotzschke O. Genetic analysis of an allergic rhinitis cohort reveals an intercellular epistasis between FAM134B and CD39. BMC Med Genet. 2014 Jun 27;15(1):73. 

Sun Y, Zuo X, Zheng X, Zhou F, Liang B, Liu H, Chang R, Gao J, Sheng Y, Cui H, Wang W, Andiappan AK, Rotzschke O, Yang S, Sun L, Zhang F, Zhang X, Ren Y, Liu J. A comprehensive association analysis confirms ZMIZ1 to be a susceptibility gene for vitiligo in Chinese population. J Med Genet. 2014 May;51(5):345-53.

Andiappan AK, Puan KJ, Lee B, Nardin A, Poidinger M, Connolly J, Chew FT, Wang DY, Rotzschke O. Allergic airway diseases in a tropical urban environment are driven by dominant mono-specific sensitization against house dust mites. Allergy. 2014 Apr;69(4):501-9.

Melchiotti R, Rötzschke O, Poidinger M. ArchiLD: Hierarchical Visualization of Linkage Disequilibrium in Human Populations. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 21;9(1):e86761. 


Andiappan AK, Rotzschke O, Wang DY, Chew FT. Association of Interleukin-13 SNP rs20541 (Arg>Gln) to allergic rhinitis in an Asian population of ethnic Chinese in Singapore. Gene. 2013 Oct 25;529(2):357-8.

Puentes F, Dickhaut K, Hofstätter M, Falk K, Rötzschke O. Active suppression induced by repetitive self-epitopes Protects against EAE development. PLoS One. 2013 May 30;8(5):e64888.

Clement CC, Aphkhazava D, Nieves E, Callaway M, Olszewski W, Rotzschke O, Santambrogio L. Protein Expression Profiles of Human Lymph and Plasma Mapped by 2D-DIGE and 1D SDS-PAGE Coupled with NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS Bottom-Up Proteomics. J Proteomics. 2013 Jan 14;78:172-87.


Andiappan AK, Wang DY, Anantharaman R, Suri BK, Lee BTK, Rotzschke O, Liu J, Chew FT. Replication of genome-wide association study loci for allergic rhinitis and house dust mite sensitization in an Asian population of ethnic Chinese in Singapore. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012, Dec 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Salcido-Ochoa F, Yusof N, Hue SS, Haase D, Kee T, Rotzschke O. Are we ready for the use of foxp3(+) regulatory T cells for immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy in kidney transplantation? J Transplant. 2012;2012:397952.

Haase D, Starke M, Puan KJ, Lai TS, Rotzschke O. Immune modulation of inflammatory conditions: regulatory T cells for treatment of GvHD. Immunol Res. 2012 Sep;53(1-3):200-12.

Kam YW, Lum FM, Teo TH, Lee WW, Simarmata D, Harjanto S, Chua CL, Chan YF, Wee JK, Chow A, Lin RT, Leo YS, Le Grand R, Sam IC, Tong JC, Roques P, Wiesmüller KH, Rénia L, Rötzschke O, Ng LF. Early neutralizing IgG response to Chikungunya virus in infected patients targets a dominant linear epitope on the E2 glycoprotein. EMBO Mol Med. 2012 Apr;4(4):330-43.


Rupp B, Günther S, Makhmoor T, Schlundt A, Dickhaut K, Gupta S, Choudhary I, Wiesmüller KH, Jung G, Freund C, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Kühne R. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 14;6(4):e18662.

Betts RJ, Prabhu N, Ho AW, Lew FC, Hutchinson PE, Rotzschke O, Macary PA, Kemeny DM. Influenza A Virus Infection Results in a Robust, Antigen-Responsive and Widely Disseminated Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Response. J Virol. 2012 Mar;86(5):2817-25.

Clement CC, Rotzschke O, Santambrogio L. The lymph as a pool of self-antigens. Trends Immunol. Jan 2011; 32(1):6-11.


Gunther S, Schlundt A, Sticht J, Roske Y, Heinemann U, Wiesmuller KH, Jung G, Falk K, Rotzschke O, Freund C. Bidirectional binding of invariant chain peptides to an MHC class II molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Nov 29 2010.

Bianconi G, Rotzschke O. Bose-Einstein distribution, condensation transition, and multiple stationary states in multiloci evolution of diploid populations. Phys Rev E. Sep 16 2010; 82(3):036109(1-11).

Salcido-Ochoa F, Tsang J, Tam P, Falk K, Rotzschke O. Regulatory T cells in transplantation: does extracellular adenosine triphosphate metabolism through CD39 play a crucial role? Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2010 Apr;24(2):52-66.


Dickhaut K, Hoepner S, Eckhard J, Wiesmueller KH, Schindler L, Jung G, Falk K, Roetzschke O. Enhancement of tumour-specific immune responses in vivo by 'MHC loading-enhancer' (MLE). PLoS One. 2009 Sep 7;4(9):e6811.

Mailer RK, Falk K, Rötzschke O. Absence of leucine zipper in the natural FOXP3Delta2Delta7 isoform does not affect dimerization but abrogates suppressive capacity. PLoS One. 2009 Jul 1;4(7):e6104.

Rötzschke O, Borsellino G, Battistini L, Falk K, Kleinewietfeld M. In vivo-activated CD103+ Foxp3+ Tregs: of men and mice. Blood. 2009 Feb 26;113(9):2119-20.

Kleinewietfeld M, Starke M, DiMitri D, Borsellino G, Battistini L, Rotzschke O, Falk K. CD49d provides access to ‘untouched' human Foxp3+ Treg free of contaminating effector cells. Blood. 2009 Jan 22;113(4):827-36.


Gupta S, Höpner S, Rupp B, Günther S, Dickhaut K, Agarwal N, Cardoso MC, Kühne R, Wiesmüller KH, Jung G, Falk K, Rötzschke O. Anchor side chains of short peptide fragments trigger ligand-exchange of class II MHC molecules. PLoS One. 2008 Mar 19;3(3):e1814.

Kleinewietfeld M, DiMitri D, Sternjak A, Diamantini A, Borsellino G, BattistiniL, Rotzschke O, Falk K. Hydrolysis of extracellular ATP by CD39+ Treg cells: context matters! Blood. 2008 Jan 15; 111:965-966.


Burster T, Marin-Esteban V, Boehm BO, Dunn S, Rotzschke O, Falk K, Weber E, Verhelst SH, Kalbacher H, Driessen C. Design of protease-resistant myelin basic protein-derived peptides by cleavage site directed amino acid substitutions. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Nov 15;74(10):1514-23.

Borsellino G, Kleinewietfeld M, Di Mitri D, Sternjak A, Diamantini A, Giometto R, Höpner S, Centonze D, Bernardi G, Dell'Acqua ML, Rossini PM, Battistini L, Rötzschke O, Falk K. Expression of ectonucleotidase CD39 by Foxp3+ Treg cells: hydrolysis of extracellular ATP and immune suppression. Blood. 2007 Aug 15;110(4):1225-32.

Burster T, Beck A, Poeschel S, Øren A, Baechle D, Reich M, Roetzschke O, Falk K, Boehm BO, Youssef S, Kalbacher H, Overkleeft H, Tolosa E, Driessen C. Interferon-gamma regulates cathepsin G activity in microglia-derived lysosomes and controls the proteolytic processing of myelin basic protein in vitro. Immunology. 2007 May;121(1):82-93.

Piaggio E, Mars LT, Cassan C, Cabarrocas J, Hofstätter M, Desbois S, Bergereau E, Rötzschke O, Falk K, Liblau RS. Multimerized T cell epitopes protect from experimental autoimmune diabetes by inducing dominant tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 29;104(22):9393-8.


Höpner S, Dickhaut K, Hofstätter M, Krämer H, Rückerl D, Söderhäll JA, Gupta S, Marin-Esteban V, Kühne R, Freund C, Jung G, Falk K, Rötzschke O. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 15;281(50):38535-42.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Allele-specific motifs revealed by sequencing of self-peptides eluted from MHC molecules. 1991. J Immunol. 2006 Sep 1;177(5):2741-7.


Kleinewietfeld M, Puentes F, Borsellino G, Battistini L, Rötzschke O, Falk K. CCR6 expression defines regulatory effector/memory-like cells within the CD25(+)CD4+ T-cell subset. Blood. 2005 Apr 1;105(7):2877-86.


Marin-Esteban V, Falk K, Rötzschke O. "Chemical analogues" of HLA-DM can induce a peptide-receptive state in HLA-DR molecules. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 3;279(49):50684-90.

Burster T, Beck A, Tolosa E, Marin-Esteban V, Rötzschke O, Falk K, Lautwein A, Reich M, Brandenburg J, Schwarz G, Wiendl H, Melms A, Lehmann R, Stevanovic S, Kalbacher H, Driessen C. Cathepsin G, and not the asparagine-specific endoprotease, controls the processing of myelin basic protein in lysosomes from human B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2004 May 1;172(9):5495-503.

Øren A, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Bechmann I, Nitsch R, Gimsa U. Production of neuroprotective NGF in astrocyte-T helper cell cocultures is upregulated following antigen recognition. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Apr;149(1-2):59-65.


Marin-Esteban V, Falk K, Rötzschke O. Small-molecular compounds enhance the loading of APC with encephalitogenic MBP protein. J Autoimmun. 2003 Feb;20(1):63-9.


Rötzschke O, Lau JM, Hofstätter M, Falk K, Strominger JL. A pH-sensitive histidine residue as control element for ligand release from HLA-DR molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16946-50.

Falk K and Rotzschke O. The final cut: how ERAP1 trims MHC ligands to size. Nat Immunol. 2002 Dec;3(12):1121-2.

Falk K, Lau JM, Santambrogio L, Esteban VM, Puentes F, Rotzschke O, Strominger JL. Ligand exchange of major histocompatibility complex class II proteins is triggered by H-bond donor groups of small molecules. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jan 25;277(4):2709-15.


Celestin J, Rotschke O, Falk K, Ramesh N, Jabara H, Strominger J, Geha RS. IL-3 induces B7.2 (CD86) expression and costimulatory activity in human eosinophils. J Immunol. 2001 Dec 1;167(11):6097-104.

Stienekemeier M, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Weishaupt A, Schneider C, Toyka KV, Gold R, Strominger JL. Vaccination, prevention, and treatment of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) by an oligomerized T cell epitope. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Nov 20;98(24):13872-7.

Mack J, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Walk T, Strominger JL, Jung G. Synthesis of linear and comb-like peptide constructs containing up to four copies of a T cell epitope and their capacity to stimulate T cells. J Pept Sci. 2001 Jun;7(6):338-45.


Falk K, Rötzschke O, Strominger JL. Antigen-specific elimination of T cells induced by oligomerized hemagglutinin (HA) 306-318. Eur J Immunol. 2000 Oct;30(10):3012-20.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Santambrogio L, Dorf ME, Brosnan C, Strominger JL. Induction and suppression of an autoimmune disease by oligomerized T cell epitopes: enhanced in vivo potency of encephalitogenic peptides. J Exp Med. 2000 Feb 21;191(4):717-30.


Rötzschke O, Falk K, Mack J, Lau JM, Jung G, Strominger JL. Conformational variants of class II MHC/peptide complexes induced by N- and C-terminal extensions of minimal peptide epitopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jun 22;96(13):7445-50.


Rötzschke O, Falk K, Strominger JL. Superactivation of an immune response triggered by oligomerized T cell epitopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Dec 23;94(26):14642-7.

Maryanski JL, Casanova JL, Falk K, Gournier H, Jaulin C, Kourilsky P, Lemonnier FA, Lüthy R, Rammensee HG, Rötzschke O, Servis C, López JA. The diversity of antigen-specific TCR repertoires reflects the relative complexity of epitopes recognized. Hum Immunol. 1997 May;54(2):117-28.


Steinle A, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Gnau V, Stevanović S, Jung G, Schendel DJ, Rammensee HG. Motif of HLA-B*3503 peptide ligands. Immunogenetics. 1996;43(1-2):105-7.


Falk K, Rötzschke O, Takiguchi M, Gnau V, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Peptide motifs of HLA-B51, -B52 and -B78 molecules, and implications for Behcet's disease. Int Immunol. 1995 Feb;7(2):223-8.

Sidney J, del Guercio MF, Southwood S, Engelhard VH, Appella E, Rammensee HG, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Takiguchi M, Kubo RT, et al. Several HLA alleles share overlapping peptide specificities. J Immunol. 1995 Jan 1;154(1):247-59.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Takiguchi M, Gnau V, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Peptide motifs of HLA-B38 and B39 molecules. Immunogenetics. 1995;41(2-3):162-4.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Takiguchi M, Gnau V, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Peptide motifs of HLA-B58, B60, B61, and B62 molecules. Immunogenetics. 1995;41(2-3):165-8.


Wölfel T, Schneider J, Meyer Zum Büschenfelde KH, Rammensee HG, Rötzschke O, Falk K. Isolation of naturally processed peptides recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) on human melanoma cells in association with HLA-A2.1. Int J Cancer. 1994 May 1;57(3):413-8.

Rötzschke O, Falk K, Stevanović S, Gnau V, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Dominant aromatic/aliphatic C-terminal anchor in HLA-B*2702 and B*2705 peptide motifs. Immunogenetics. 1994;39(1):74-7.

Rotzschke O and Falk K. Origin, structure and motifs of naturally processed MHC class II ligands. Curr Opin Immunol. 1994 Feb;6(1):45-51.

Maier R, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Maier B, Gnau V, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG, Meyerhans A. Peptide motifs of HLA-A3, -A24, and -B7 molecules as determined by pool sequencing. Immunogenetics. 1994;40(4):306-8.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Takiguchi M, Grahovac B, Gnau V, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Peptide motifs of HLA-A1, -A11, -A31, and -A33 molecules. Immunogenetics. 1994;40(3):238-41.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Pool sequencing of natural HLA-DR, DQ, and DP ligands reveals detailed peptide motifs, constraints of processing, and general rules Immunogenetics. 1994;39(4):230-42.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Stevanović S, Gnau V, Sparbier K, Jung G, Rammensee HG, Walden P. Analysis of a naturally occurring HLA class I-restricted viral epitope. Immunology. 1994 Jul;82(3):337-42.


Rötzschke O, Falk K, Stevanović S, Grahovac B, Soloski MJ, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Qa-2 molecules are peptide receptors of higher stringency than ordinary class I molecules. Nature. 1993 Feb 18;361(6413):642-4.

Rammensee HG, Rötzschke O, Falk K. MHC class I-restricted antigen processing--lessons from natural ligands. Chem Immunol. 1993;57:113-33.

Rammensee HG, Rötzschke O, Falk K. Self tolerance of natural MHC class I ligands. Int Rev Immunol. 1993;10(4):291-300.

Rammensee HG, Falk K, Rötzschke O. Peptides naturally presented by MHC class I molecules. Annu Rev Immunol. 1993;11:213-44.

Rammensee HG, Falk K, Rötzschke O.MHC molecules as peptide receptors. Curr Opin Immunol. 1993 Feb;5(1):35-44.

Norda M, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Comparison of the H-2Kk- and H-2Kkm1-restricted peptide motifs. J Immunother Emphasis Tumor Immunol. 1993 Aug;14(2):144-9.

Malcherek G, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Rammensee HG, Stevanović S, Gnau V, Jung G, Melms A. Natural peptide ligand motifs of two HLA molecules associated with myasthenia gravis. Int Immunol. 1993 Oct;5(10):1229-37.

Harpur AG, Zimiecki A, Wilks AF, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Rammensee HG. A prominent natural H-2 Kd ligand is derived from protein tyrosine kinase JAK1. Immunol Lett. 1993 Mar;35(3):235-7.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Grahovac B, Schendel D, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Peptide motifs of HLA-B35 and -B37 molecules. Immunogenetics. 1993;38(2):161-2.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Grahovac B, Schendel D, Stevanović S, Gnau V, Jung G, Strominger JL, Rammensee HG. Allele-specific peptide ligand motifs of HLA-C molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15;90(24):12005-9.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Faath S, Goth S, Graef I, Shastri N, Rammensee HG. Both human and mouse cells expressing H-2Kb and ovalbumin process the same peptide, SIINFEKL. Cell Immunol. 1993 Sep;150(2):447-52.

Falk K, Rötzschke O. Consensus motifs and peptide ligands of MHC class I molecules. Semin Immunol. 1993 Apr;5(2):81-94.


Wallny HJ, Rötzschke O, Falk K, Hämmerling G, Rammensee HG. Gene transfer experiments imply instructive role of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in cellular peptide processing. Eur J Immunol. 1992 Mar;22(3):655-9.

Rötzschke O, Falk K, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Peptide motifs of closely related HLA class I molecules encompass substantial differences. Eur J Immunol. 1992 Sep;22(9):2453-6.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Rammensee HG. A self peptide naturally presented by both H-2Kb and H-2Kbm1 molecules demonstrates MHC restriction of self tolerance at the molecular level. Int Immunol. 1992 Mar;4(3):321-5.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Rammensee HG. Specificity of antigen processing for MHC class I restricted presentation is conserved between mouse and man. Eur J Immunol. 1992 May;22(5):1323-6.


Schild H, Norda M, Deres K, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Wiesmüller KH, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Fine specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes primed in vivo either with virus or synthetic lipopeptide vaccine or primed in vitro with peptide. J Exp Med. 1991 Dec 1;174(6):1665-8.

Rötzschke O, Falk K, Stevanović S, Jung G, Walden P, Rammensee HG. Exact prediction of a natural T cell epitope. Eur J Immunol. 1991 Nov;21(11):2891-4.

Rötzschke O, Falk K, Faath S, Rammensee HG. On the nature of peptides involved in T cell alloreactivity. J Exp Med. 1991 Nov 1;174(5):1059-71.

Rotzschke O and Falk K. Naturally-occurring peptide antigens derived from the MHC class-I-restricted processing pathway. Immunol Today. 1991 Dec;12(12):447-55.

Griem P, Wallny HJ, Falk K, Rötzschke O, Arnold B, Schönrich G, Hämmerling G, Rammensee HG. Uneven tissue distribution of minor histocompatibility proteins versus peptides is caused by MHC expression. Cell. 1991 May 17;65(4):633-40.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Stevanović S, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Allele-specific motifs revealed by sequencing of self-peptides eluted from MHC molecules. Nature. 1991 May 23;351(6324):290-6.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Deres K, Metzger J, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Identification of naturally processed viral nonapeptides allows their quantification in infected cells and suggests an allele-specific T cell epitope forecast. J Exp Med. 1991 Aug 1;174(2):425-34.


Schild H, Rötzschke O, Kalbacher H, Rammensee HG. Limit of T cell tolerance to self proteins by peptide presentation. Science. 1990 Mar 30;247(4950):1587-9.

Rötzschke O, Falk K, Wallny HJ, Faath S, Rammensee HG. Characterization of naturally occurring minor histocompatibility peptides including H-4 and H-Y. Science. 1990 Jul 20;249(4966):283-7.

Rötzschke O, Falk K, Deres K, Schild H, Norda M, Metzger J, Jung G, Rammensee HG. Isolation and analysis of naturally processed viral peptides as recognized by cytotoxic T cells. Nature. 1990 Nov 15;348(6298):252-4.

Falk K, Rötzschke O, Rammensee HG. Cellular peptide composition governed by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Nature. 1990 Nov 15;348(6298):248-51.

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